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A plane is a very complicated vehicle. The job of the plane is to do something that most people consider impossible A heavier than air craft that can escape the ground. In order to take advantage of the physics that make such a feat possible, a number of different aviation systems are required to enable the vehicle off the ground and keep it in the air. Obviously there are a number of systems involved than what are listed below, but these are for the safety and comfort of the crew and passenger.
It may seem like an odd place to begin, but the landing gear are the last to leave the ground and the first to touch the ground. They are the simplest of the aviation systems of the airplane, but are arguably the one that everyone worries about the most. The landing gear must be able to take on the entire momentum of the plane as it lands, the combination of the craft's weight and speed making for some of the toughest springs on the planet. They have a number of warning systems in case they are not working, and can usually be operated by electronics and manually in case of emergency, making them also one of the most guarded systems.
Steering in an airplane needs to allow for three dimensions rather than two, making the need for an intuitive system mandatory. Given the sheer number of gauges that a pilot must watch, reducing the steering to a simple stick is a remarkable breakthrough. The single stick is in control of a wide number of different surfaces around the plane that make the pilot's wishes into commands that are immediately acted upon. The pilot must be on guard against icing as it may make piloting the craft impossible to steer more than a little at a time or possible more than a flying brick. This is why planes are fitted with heaters in all applicable areas.
The biggest problem when it comes to flight is that a plane leaves a large wake behind it that can complicate the flight of any plane behind it. There is also the issue that something that size coming in with that speed can cause a lot of damage. For this reason a plane must communicate with other crafts and any radio towers. It may be the simplest aviation system aboard the plane, but it has the most redundancies. It is also wired to the black box, the virtually indestructible part of the plane that remains after the crash in order to allow for a proper post-mortem so that other crashes may be prevented.
The combination of all of these systems, as well as the array of sensory equipment, allow an airplane to leave the ground and return to its embrace with little fear, making it the safest form of travel in the world. A passenger may enter the plane fully content that he will be leaving the plane in one piece and with minimal fuss at the end of his journey.